He told the boss he couldn’t do the trip because he’s not feeling well. The real issue is he’s afraid to be away from his wife. What he, and you, may not know about adult separation anxiety disorder…
Imagine constantly being afraid that horrible things will happen to those you love the most: spouse, partner, children, etc.
Thing is, this isn’t the first time he begged off something important because of his fear of being separated from his wife.
And he isn’t alone. Some 7% of the population have had a go with adult separation anxiety disorder.
What you may not know…
What is adult separation anxiety disorder?
Officially, adult separation anxiety disorder no longer exists.
See, once upon a time separation anxiety was considered a child and adolescent disorder. But that changed with the arrival of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in 2013.
So separation anxiety disorder now covers the lifespan.
Separation anxiety disorder DSM-5 diagnostic criteria
Let’s take a good look at separation anxiety disorder by reviewing DSM-5 diagnostic criteria…
Developmentally inappropriate and excessive fear or anxiety concerning separation from those to whom the individual is attached, as evidenced by at least three of the following…
- Recurrent excessive distress when anticipating or experiencing separation from home or from major attachment figures
- Persistent and excessive worry about losing major attachment figures or about possible harm to them, such as illness, injury, disasters, or death
- Persistent and excessive worry about experiencing an untoward event (e.g., getting lost, being kidnapped, having an accident, becoming ill) that causes separation from a major attachment figure
- Persistent reluctance or refusal to go out, away from home, to school, to work, or elsewhere because of fear of separation
- Persistent and excessive fear of or reluctance about being alone or without major attachment figures at home or in other settings
- Persistent reluctance or refusal to sleep away from home or to go to sleep without being near a major attachment figure
- Repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation
- Repeated complaints of physical symptoms (such as headaches, stomachaches, nausea, or vomiting) when separation from major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated
Key in diagnosing the adult version of separation anxiety disorder is the fear, anxiety, or avoidance persisting for six months or more. By the way, for children and adolescents it drops to four weeks.
In addition, there isn’t a “disorder” unless there’s significant distress or impairment in social, academic, occupational, or other necessary areas of functioning.
That’s an important caveat to keep in mind with any emotional/mental situation. I mean, as badly as we may feel in the moment, there’s at least some consolation in knowing we aren’t at disorder magnitude.
Of course, the goings-on can’t be attributed to another emotional, mental, or physical situation. And that can be tricky because of the mood and anxiety disorder overlap factor.
Is that a good enough look?
The brutal fallout
This is seriously unpleasant stuff. Imagine constantly being afraid that horrible things will happen to those you love the most: spouse, partner, children, etc.
And it comes down to being terrified of being alone. That can lead to demanding to know where these people are at all times.
No wonder many with adult separation anxiety disorder are over-involved parents and overbearing partners. And no wonder the adults and children on the receiving end suffer terribly.
What causes separation anxiety disorder?
As with any mood or anxiety disorder, the cause of separation anxiety disorder in adults is that all too familiar combo of nature and nurture.
Instead of opening that frustrating can of worms, we’ll go with risk factors…
- Diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, bipolar disorder, depression, and personality disorders (emphasis on cluster B)
- Diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder as a child or adolescent (applies in some 36% of adult cases)
- Traumatic separation such as loss of a loved one or divorce
- Growing up with overbearing or neglectful parents
- Childhood or adolescent trauma or attachment issues
Along with signs and symptoms, use these risk factors to realistically assess what’s going on and reach out for help if indicated.
Hey, if it looks like a duck and walks like a duck, it’s more than likely – a duck.
How is adult separation anxiety disorder treated?
Treatment for adult separation anxiety disorder is similar to interventions for other anxiety disorders. A therapy and meds combo show higher success rates in managing symptoms.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in an individual, group, and/or family setting is the most common therapy used. A type of CBT, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), may be an option.
When it comes to meds, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder.
It’s interesting, however, that the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine (Anafranil) is FDA-approved for the treatment of separation anxiety in dogs (ruff).
For we humans, antidepressants, particularly the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are most often prescribed. Benzodiazepines may be prescribed in special situations.
What you may not know…
Separation anxiety disorder – in this case, the adult version – can bring on all sorts of torment for those wrestling with it and the people they love.
I think it deserves much more attention than it gets.
If you or someone close to you are struggling with any of what we discussed, it’s time to do something about it.
What you may not know can hurt you.
What better time than now to review the Chipur titles? Mood and anxiety info and inspiration.